The 1924 Constitution was based on the principle of cooperation within a Republican regime. The 1924 Constitution played an important role in the development of Turkish political life. It opened the way to the establishment of political parties and consequently democracy.
In the 1961 Constitution, which was based upon the principle of separation of powers, the power to legislate was vested in the two chambers: The National Assembly and the Republican Senate. The executive power rested with the President and the Council of Ministers, provided that their actions were within the limits delineated by the law. The exercise of judicial power was to be used in independent tribunals on behalf of the nation.
The power to legislate is vested in the Turkish Grand National Assembly (TGNA), which performs this function on behalf of the Turkish nation. This power may not be delegated.
Turkish Grand National Assembly
The TGNA was first empowered to exercise legislative power in Ankara on April 23, 1920, in Ankara by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.
This Assembly functioned under the extraordinary circumstances and exercised legislative, executive and judicial powers under the concept of the unity of these powers.
The 1924 Constitution was based on the principle of cooperation within a Republican regime. The 1924 Constitution played an important role in the development of Turkish political life. It opened the way to the establishment of political parties and consequently democracy. In the 1961 Constitution, which was based upon the principle of separation of powers, the power to legislate was vested in the two chambers: The National Assembly and the Republican Senate.
The executive power rested with the President and the Council of Ministers, provided that their actions were within the limits delineated by the law. The exercise of judicial power was to be used in independent tribunals on behalf of the nation.
In the 1982 Constitution, the duties and authorities of the TGNA, now composed of one chamber, are outlined as follows:
- To enact, amend and abrogate laws
- To monitor the actions of the Council of Ministers and Ministers
- To delegate to the Council of Ministers the authority to issue "Decrees with Power of Law" for specific subjects
- To debate and pass the Budget and the Bills for Final Accounts
- To ratify the printing of currency and the declaration of war
- To ratify international agreements
- To declare amnesty or pardons for those convicted of crimes other than those specified in article 14 of the Constitution and to ratify the execution of death sentences ruled by the courts and for which appeals have been denied
The TGNA, composed of 550 deputies, convenes of its own accord on the first day of October of each year. The Assembly may recess for a maximum of three months in any one legislative year. During an adjournment or recess, the Assembly may be summoned by the President either on his own initiative or at the request of the Council of Ministers. The Speaker of the House may also, either on his own initiative or upon the written request of one – fifth of the members, call the Assembly into session.
The Chairmanship Council of the Grand National Assembly is composed of the Speaker of the House, his Deputies, Scribe Members and the Administrative Supervisory members. The Council is elected from among the Assembly members in due proportion to the number of members in each political party group.
The Assembly takes its decision by the absolute majority vote of those present.
Unless a decision has been taken to hold a closed session, all debates of the Assembly may be viewed by spectators and are held openly. The proceedings are published in the Journal of Records, and unless a decision to the contrary has been taken, may be published by any means.
The TGNA exercises its parliamentary control functions by means of parliamentary questions, parliamentary investigations, general debates, ministerial questioning and inquiries.
- Mustafa Kemal Ataturk (24 April 1920 – 29 October 1923)
- Ali Fethi Okyar (1 November 1923 – 22 November 1924)
- Kazim Ozalp (26 November 1924 – 1 March 1935)
- M. Abdulhalik Renda (1 March 1935 – 5 August 1946)
- Kazim Karabekir (5 August 1946 – 26 January 1948)
- Ali Fuat Cebesoy (30 January 1948 – 1 November 1948)
- Sukru Saracoglu (1 November 1948 – 22 May 1950)
- Refik Koraltan (22 May 1950 – 27 May 1960)
Speakers of the National Assembly
- Kazim Orbay (9 January 1961 – 26 October 1961)
- Fuat Sirmen (1 November 1961 – 22 October 1965)
- Ferruh Bozbeyli (22 October 1965 – 1 November 1970)
- Sabit Osman Avci (26 November 1970 – 24 October 1973)
- Kemal Guven (18 December 1973 – 13 June 1977)
- Cahit Karakas (17 November 1977 – 12 September 1980)
Speaker of the Consultative Assembly
- Sadi Irmak (27 October 1981 – 6 December 1983)
- Necemettin Karaduman (4 December 1983 – 23 December 1987)
- Yildirim Akbulut (24 December 1987 – 9 November 1989)
- Kaya Erdem (21 November 1989 – 2 November 1991)
- Husamettin Cindoruk (16 November 1991 – 2 October 1995)
- Ismet Sezgin (19 October 1995 – 25 January 1996)
- Mustafa Kalemli (26 January 1996 – 30 September 1997)
- Hikmet Cetin (16 October 1997 – 18 April 1999)
- Yildirim Akbulut (20 May 1999 – 30 September 2000)
- Omer Izgi (18 October 2000 – 3 November 2002)
- Bulent Arinc (19 November 2002 – )
Speakers of the Republican Senate
- Suat Hayri Urguplu (28 October 1961 – 1 November 1963)
- Enver Aka (1 November 1963 – 1 November 1965)
- I. Sevki Atasagun (2 December 1965 – 19 November 1970)
- Tekin Ariburun (19 November 1970 – 14 June 1977)
- Sirri Atalay (16 June 1977 – 6 November 1979)
- Ihsan Sabri Caglayangil (6 November 1979 – 12 September 1980)
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